THE International Trade Centre (ITC) has called on East Africa’s young people to embrace e-commerce and tap into global online sales worth $26 million as the Africa Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) gets off the ground in 2021. Today at the Bab-el-Mandeb straits, the Red Sea is about 12 miles (20 kilometres) wide, but 50,000 years ago it was much narrower and sea levels were 70 meters lower. A coalition of international, national, and refugee-led organizations in the Horn, East and Central Africa (HECA) have today called on governments in the region to reopen borders for asylum seekers. A famous environmentalist from Kenya, Wangari Maathai is the first woman from the under privileged region of East and Central Africa to have attained a doctorate. The East African Community (EAC) is a regional intergovernmental organisation of 6 Partner States: the Republics of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, the United Republic of Tanzania, and the Republic of Uganda, with its headquarters in Arusha, Tanzania. In 1890, beginning with the purchase of the small port town of (Asseb) from a local sultan in Eritrea, the Italians colonized all of Eritrea. “Online marketplaces could drive inclusive growth across Africa, with e-commerce likely to create as many as 3 […] It has official status in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somaliland, and the Red Sea coast of Sudan are considered the most likely location of the land known to the Ancient Egyptians as Punt. The southern three-fourths of Somalia became an Italian protectorate (Italian Somaliland). Rwanda and Uganda continue to be involved in related conflicts outside the region. Because of a combination of the region's generally high altitude and the rain shadow of the westerly monsoon winds created by the Rwenzori Mountains and Ethiopian Highlands, East Africa is surprisingly cool and dry for its latitude. THE International Trade Centre (ITC) has called on East Africa’s young people to embrace e-commerce and tap into global online sales worth $26 million as the Africa Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) gets off the ground in 2021. The major competing hypothesis is the multiregional origin of modern humans, which envisions a wave of Homo sapiens migrating earlier from Africa and interbreeding with local Homo erectus populations in multiple regions of the globe. The majority of East African citizens will have to wait till 2022 to access the Covid-19 vaccine as the available doses (specifically Biontech-Pfizer and the Moderna) have been pre-purchased by rich countries. Kenya has the highest number with more than 90,000 cases. The Republic of Venice had gained control over much of the trade routes between Europe and Asia. This was projected to reach 890 million by 2050, with an average growth rate of 2.5% per annum. Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi have each faced instability and ethnic conflict since independence, most notably the 1994 Rwandan genocide and the 1993 Burundi Genocide and subsequent Burundi Civil War. However, the official Omani Arab presence in Kenya was checked by German and British seizure of key ports and creation of crucial trade alliances with influential local leaders in the 1880s. "The Early Iron Age on Mafia Island and its relationship with the mainland." Arab governance of all the major ports along the Swahili coast continued until British interests aimed particularly at ending the slave trade and creation of a wage-labour system began to put pressure on Omani rule. The 2000 population is expected to quintuple over the course of the 21st century, to 1.6 billion as of 2100 (UN estimates as of 2017). The Malagasy people of Madagascar are Austronesian people and native African people, but those along the coast are generally mixed with Bantu, Arab, Indian and European origins. In 1895, from bases in Somalia and Eritrea, the Italians launched the First Italo–Ethiopian War against the Orthodox Empire of Ethiopia. The Portuguese presence in the area officially began after 1505, when flagships under the command of Don Francisco de Almeida conquered Kilwa, an island located in what is now southern Tanzania. The system consists of two branches. The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, with each population generally … Tanzania and Uganda fought the Uganda-Tanzania War in 1978–1979, which led to the removal of Uganda's despotic leader Idi Amin. Southeast Africa or Southeastern Africa is an African region that is intermediate between East Africa and Southern Africa. Among these languages are Kikuyu, Kinyarwanda, Kirundi, Kisukuma, Luganda and many others. african ethnic design with abstract geometric ornament and dancing people - east africa stock illustrations happy couple riding bicycle - east africa stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images fishermen in their dhow boat at the coast of zanzibar - east africa stock pictures, royalty-free photos & … Coffee, cut flowers, tea, tobacco, fish, and vegetables are the region's predominant exports. Among these countries, the trio of Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda are considered the leading giants. The cover of the report is based on a gen - eral design by Laetitia Yattien-Amiguet and Justin Kabasele of the Bank’s External Rela-  The Aksumite rulers facilitated trade by minting their own Aksumite currency. people and goods moving across East Africa. , East Africa is one of the earliest regions where Homo sapiens are believed to have lived. East African music consists of simpler instrumentation than Central Africa or West Africa, with a heavy reliance on percussion and basic horns, and less in the way of complex bowing. Anatomically modern humans are believed to have appeared as early as 200,000 years ago in the eastern region of sub-Saharan Africa. At other places on his way, such as the island of Angediva, near Goa, and Cannanore, the Portuguese built forts, and adopted measures to secure the Portuguese supremacy. The Kingdom of Aksum was a trading empire centered in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia. The German Empire gained control of a large area named German East Africa, comprising present-day Rwanda, Burundi and the mainland part of Tanzania named Tanganyika. In fact, on the coast of Somalia, many years can go by without any rain whatsoever.  The old kingdom's first mention dates to the 25th century BC. South Sudanese independence was nearly derailed by the South Kordofan conflict, particularly a dispute over the status of the Abyei Area, and both Abyei and South Kordofan's Nuba Hills remain a source of tension between Juba and Khartoum. East African cuisine makes heavy use of grains and tubers, which are often processed into a mash, eaten with either bread or rice. The Italian occupation of Ethiopia ended in 1941 during World War II as part of the East African Campaign.The French also staked out an East African outpost on the route to French Indochina. Between 2500 and 3000 years ago, Bantu-speaking peoples began a millennia-long series of migrations eastward from their homeland around southern Cameroon. , According to both genetic and fossil evidence, it has been posited that archaic Homo sapiens evolved into anatomically modern humans in the Horn of Africa around 200,000 years ago and dispersed from there. Indo-European languages, such as English, French and Portuguese, remain important in higher institutions in some parts of the larger region.  However, this has never been the convention in many other languages, where the term generally had a wider, strictly geographic context and therefore typically included Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.. Well-known for the “Green Belt Movement”, she has inspired many people the world over to take up the cause of afforestation. Casson, Lionel (1989).  Some researchers have suggested that North Africa was the region of Africa from which modern humans who first trekked out of the continent. The Omani presence continued in Zanzibar and Pemba until the Zanzibar Revolution in 1964. Jan 4, 2019 - This board is intended to be an educational resource. They besieged Portuguese fortresses, openly attacked naval vessels and expelled the Portuguese from the Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts by 1730.  In the video games Halo 2 and Halo 3, East Africa is one of the central locations for the campaigns.. Rainfall in East Africa is characterised by two main rainfall reasons, the long rains from March–May and the short rains from October- December. Malay and Indian ancestries are also important components in the group of people known in South Africa as Cape Coloureds (people with origins in two or more races and continents). East and Southern Africa is the region hardest hit by HIV. Madagascar was seized by the French, some of Somalia to Italy, and Rwanda, Burundi and the main part of … Swahili, with at least 80 million speakers as a first or second language, is an important trade language in the Great Lakes area. The East African people who are least likely to know English are the nomadic Maasai of southern Kenya and northern Tanzania. Some went south along Africa’s west coast, while others headed east across the continent in one of the greatest migrations in human history.  The recognition of Homo sapien idaltu and Omo Kibish as anatomically modern humans would justify the description of contemporary humans with the subspecies name Homo sapiens sapiens. The coast of East Africa stretches 4,600km from southern Somalia to the Natal shores of South Africa. Archaeological evidence indicates that the continent has been inhabited by humans and their forebears for some 4,000,000 years or more. Some researchers have suggested that North Africa was the region of Africa from which modern humans who first trekked out of the continent. Following the Zanzibar Revolution of 1965, the independent state of Tanganyika formed the United Republic of Tanzania by creating a union between the mainland, and the island chain of Zanzibar. However, the town was taken and destroyed, and its large treasures went to strengthen the resources of Almeida. El Nino events tend to increase rainfall except in the northern and western parts of the Ethiopian and Eritrean highlands, where they produce drought and poor Nile floods. A later movement of Arabs into East and Central Africa occurred in the 19th century. East Africa is a massive region, containing hundreds of countries and spanning as many as 19 territories. Lionel Casson. This in turn challenged the older trading networks of mixed land and sea routes, such as the spice trade routes which utilized the Persian Gulf, Red Sea and camel caravans to reach the eastern Mediterranean. A famous environmentalist from Kenya, Wangari Maathai is the first woman from the under privileged region of East and Central Africa to have attained a doctorate. German East Africa, though very extensive, was not of such strategic importance as the British Crown's colonies to the north: the inhabitation of these lands was difficult and thus limited, mainly due to climatic conditions and the local geomorphology. Since the end of colonialism, the region has endured the following conflicts: Kenya has enjoyed relatively stable governance. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to explore the region of current-day Kenya, Tanzania, and Mozambique by sea. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. It is home to around 6.2% of the world’s population but over half (54%) of the total number of people living with HIV in the world (20.6 million people). East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the African continent, variably defined by geography.In the United Nations Statistics Division scheme of geographic regions, 20 territories make up Eastern Africa:. These countries include some of the poorest nations in the world situated in the Horn of Africa and Great Lakes regions. Attacks followed on Hoja (now known as Ungwana, located at the mouth of the Tana River), Barawa, Angoche, Pate and other coastal towns until the western Indian Ocean was a safe haven for Portuguese commercial interests. United Nations Statistics Division scheme of geographic regions, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of kingdoms in pre-colonial Africa § East Africa, List of African cuisines § East African cuisine, Music of Africa § West, Central, Southeast and South Africa, Sub-Saharan African music traditions § East Africa, Traditional African religions § East Africa, Writing systems of Africa § Ancient orthographies, List of ethnic groups of Africa § East Africa, History of science and technology in Africa § East Africa, Genocide of Hutus in 1972 and genocide of Tutsis in 1993, "United Nations Statistics Division- Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)", "Overview of Module Twenty: Southern Africa", "Africa :: Egypt — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en, 10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<3457:gpoirv>2.0.co;2, "A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean", "A geographically explicit genetic model of worldwide human-settlement history", Searching for traces of the Southern Dispersal, "Genomic evidence for an African expansion of anatomically modern humans by a Southern route", "Genetic and archaeological perspectives on the initial modern human colonization of southern Asia", "Meet the Contenders for Earliest Modern Human", "Scientists Are Amazed By Stone Age Tools They Dug Up in Kenya", "A Cultural Leap at the Dawn of Humanity - New finds from Kenya suggest that humans used long-distance trade networks, sophisticated tools, and symbolic pigments right from the dawn of our species", "Long-distance stone transport and pigment use in the earliest Middle Stone Age", "Scientists Find the Skull of Humanity's Ancestor — on a Computer - By comparing fossils and CT scans, researchers say they have reconstructed the skull of the last common forebear of modern humans", "Deciphering African late middle Pleistocene hominin diversity and the origin of our species", 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(200005)112:1<129::AID-AJPA11>3.0.CO;2-K, Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fate of Human Societies, "Forgotten Ancient History of East Africa", "The Bantu Migration | World Civilization", "Perspectives on the African past - Google Books", https://www.tripindigo.com/blog/movies-set-in-east-africa/, "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations", "IFs Forecast – Version 7.00 – Google Public Data Explorer", Canada's Africa Oil starts Somalia seismic survey, "Economic Recovery and the Role of the State", "Somalia: Somaliland appeals for 'cooperation with Puntland' a second time", "Population of capital cities and cities of 100,000 or more inhabitants", List of countries where Arabic is an official language, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=East_Africa&oldid=994953195, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles which use infobox templates with no data rows, Articles needing additional references from December 2015, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 11:49. Ethiopia remained independent until 1936 when, after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, it became part of Italian East Africa. The cultures of East Africa are diverse, but there are common threads that run through much of the region. Progress Scale. People. Réunion. This Quarterly Mixed Migration Update (QMMU) covers the East Africa and Yemen region (EAY). A coalition of international, national, and refugee-led organizations in the Horn, East and Central Africa (HECA) have today called on governments in the region to reopen borders for asylum seekers. Portugal had control of Lake Malawi’s eastern coast, while Britain controlled Uganda and Kenya. Quarterly Mixed Migration Update East Africa and Yemen, Quarter 3, 2020. Chapter 8: "The Cinnamon Route". Africa. Wangari Maathai led a life full of struggle. Over 50 million people are in need of immediate food assistance in the Horn East and Central Africa, with numbers expected to rise significantly as the … The kingdom is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as an important market place for ivory, which was exported throughout the ancient world. Madagascar became part of the French colonial empire following two military campaigns against the Kingdom of Madagascar, which it initiated after persuading Britain to relinquish its interests in the island in exchange for control of Zanzibar off the coast of Tanganyika, an important island hub of the spices trade. 2002. There are movies that have depicted East Africa in various forms. A fault is a break, crack or a fracture in the Earth crust produced by vertical and lateral movements within the earth’s crust. His articles have appeared in "Pology," "San Francisco Restaurant Review," 1001 Beautiful Sights and Visual Travel Tours. Zanzibar is now a semi-autonomous state in the United Republic of Tanzania. The French settled the largest island of the Indian Ocean (and the fourth-largest globally), Madagascar, along with a group of smaller islands nearby, namely Réunion and the Comoros. Italy gained control of various parts of Somalia in the 1880s. As much as these countries have in common, so, too, do they differ; in fact, even within a single nation there may be as many as a hundred different cultures, dozens of languages and very distinct views of their national identity. The Periplus Maris Erythraei.  Temperatures in East Africa, except on the hot and generally humid coastal belt, are moderate, with maxima of around 25 °C (77 °F) and minima of 15 °C (59 °F) at an altitude of 1,500 metres (4,921 ft). The East African campaign in World War I was a series of battles and guerrilla actions, which started in German East Africa (GEA) and spread to portions of Portuguese Mozambique, Northern Rhodesia, British East Africa, the Uganda Protectorate, and the Belgian Congo. Yams, millet, sorghum, beans, corn and teff are all widely seen. On the southern and eastern slopes of Kilimanjaro the Chaga (Chagga) have long used an effective system of irrigation based on the ridge … Like many arbitrary distinctions, there is some debate over which nations are a part of East Africa. East Africa The UN subregion of East Africa consists of 20 countries in the eastern part of the continent. Filter by flagship . Unusually, most of the rain falls in two distinct wet seasons, one centred on April and the other in October or November. Only in quite recent times has agriculture spread to the more humid regions south of the equator, through the spread of cattle, sheep and crops such as millet. He studied linguistics and phonology at Goddard College. The two most striking highlands are in Ethiopia and Kenya, respectively, where large … East Africa is generally considered to be the Cradle of Man, the region where modern hominids evolved. Prayer Cards – Africa, North and Middle East Region. These dishes are generally accompanied by a meat dish and significant amounts of milk and butter. It comprises the countries Botswana, Burundi, Eswatini, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe in the mainland, with the island-nations of Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion, Comoros, and Mayotte also included. The British Empire set foot in the region's most exploitable and promising lands acquiring what is today Uganda, and Kenya. © 2020 USATODAY, a division of Gannett Satellite Information Network, Inc. What Are the Major Landforms in Bangladesh? However, the creation of clove plantations, intensification of the slave trade and relocation of the Omani capital to Zanzibar in 1839 by Seyyid Said had the effect of consolidating the Omani power in the region. Prevailing climatic conditions and the regions' geomorphology allowed the establishment of flourishing European style settlements like Nairobi, Vila Pery, Vila Junqueiro, Porto Amélia, Lourenço Marques and Entebbe. By 1896, the war had become a total disaster for the Italians and Ethiopia was able to retain its independence. The easternmost point of the continent, that is Ras Hafun in Somalia, is of archaeological, historical and economical importance. Roland Oliver, et al. More Europeans immigrated during the subsequent colonial period, particularly to present-day South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Algeria. Native religions are still widely practiced throughout East Africa as well, especially in the rural areas.  The Bantu expansion was a long series of physical migrations, a diffusion of language and knowledge out into and in from neighboring populations, and a creation of new societal groups involving inter-marriage among communities and small groups moving to communities and small groups moving to new areas. The Arabs reclaimed much of the Indian Ocean trade, forcing the Portuguese to retreat south where they remained in Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique) as sole rulers until the 1975 independence of Mozambique. By the late nineteenth century, the slave trade on the open seas had been completely outlawed by the British and the Omani Arabs had little ability to resist the British navy's ability to enforce the directive. The Maasai inhabit the African Great Lakes region and arrived via the South Sudan. In the Middle East and Africa (MEA) alone, close to 900 000 learners have engaged with one of the 10 learning paths. Tanzania has known stable government since independence although there are significant political and religious tensions resulting from the political union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar in 1964. Wangari Maathai led a life full of struggle. XXXIV 1999, pp. The state also established its hegemony over the declining Kingdom of Kush and regularly entered the politics of the kingdoms on the Arabian peninsula, eventually extending its rule over the region with the conquest of the Himyarite Kingdom. After traditional land routes to India had been closed by the Ottoman Turks, Portugal hoped to use the sea route pioneered by da Gama to break the once Venetian trading monopoly. Portugal had first established a strong presence in southern Mozambique and the Indian Ocean since the 15th century, while during this period their possessions increasingly grew including parts from the present northern Mozambique country, up to Mombasa in present-day Kenya. Eastern Africa had an estimated population of 260 million in 2000. , In 2017 finds of modern human remains, dating to ca 300,000 years ago in Jebel Irhoud in Morocco, suggested that modern humans arose earlier and possibly in a larger area of Africa than previously thought. Home News. With these territories secured, Britain was able to serve as gatekeeper of the sea lane leading to British India. Filter by name . email@example.com. A total of 1,916,227 people are infected with Covid-19 across the continent. The British also held a number of island colonies in the region, including the extended archipelago of Seychelles and the rich farming island of Mauritius, previously under the French sovereignty. From: Red Sea Trade and Travel. East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the African continent, variably defined by geography. Benefits of the Rift valley to the people of East Africa By shamir. Azania Vol. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc, Jacob E. Safra, Somaliland is not included in the United Nations geoscheme, as it is internationally, J. D. Fage, A history of Africa, Routledge, 2002, p.29, Daniel Don Nanjira, African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy: From Antiquity to the 21st Century, ABC-CLIO, 2010, p.114. The Protectorate of Uganda and the Colony of Kenya were located in a rich farmland area mostly appropriate for the cultivation of cash crops like coffee and tea, as well as for animal husbandry with products produced from cattle and goats, such as goat meat, beef and milk. The so-called Horn of Africa nations--Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia--are also generally considered part of East Africa. By this time, the Portuguese Empire had already lost its interest on the spice trade sea route due to the decreasing profitability of that business.  It existed from approximately 100–940 AD, growing from the proto-Aksumite Iron Age period c. 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD. History. Oxford: University Press. In 1922, the British gained a League of Nations mandate over Tanganyika which it administered until Independence was granted to Tanganyika in 1961. 18. East Africa: People seeking safety trapped at borders due to Covid-19 A COALITION of international, national and refugee-led organisations in the Horn, East and Central Africa (HECA) has called on governments in the region to reopen borders for asylum seekers. Organised by The Society for Arabian Studies. More Europeans immigrated during the subsequent colonial period, particularly to present-day South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Algeria. More than 1 million people in East Africa are affected by flooding after heavy rains, an aid group said Friday. Evidence was found in 2018, dating to about 320,000 years ago, at the Kenyan site of Olorgesailie, of the early emergence of modern behaviors associated with Homo sapiens, including: long-distance trade networks (involving goods such as obsidian), the use of pigments, and the possible making of projectile points.  There are differing theories on whether there was a single exodus or several; a multiple dispersal model involves the Southern Dispersal theory. The East African Community (EAC) consists only of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda; both Burundi and Rwanda are sometimes considered a part … East Africa Covid-19 kills 11 more in Kenya as cases reach 92,459; East Africa Somalia says it will cut diplomatic ties with Kenya; East Africa UNHCR praises Kenya’s decision to grant Shona people citizenship; East Africa Al-Shabaab displays Dusit attackers in video; East Africa Uganda polls: Generals seeking to unseat Museveni; East Africa 24–25. At Lake Malawi, they finally met the recently created British Protectorate of Nyasaland (nowadays Malawi), which surrounded the homonymous lake on three sides, leaving the Portuguese the control of lake's eastern coast. The East African Community (EAC) consists only of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda; both Burundi and Rwanda are sometimes considered a part of Central Africa. Coronavirus news you may have missed overnight.  The Swahili culture that emerged from these exchanges evinces many Arab and Islamic influences not seen in traditional Bantu culture, as do the many Afro-Arab members of the Bantu Swahili people. Phone (+ 263) 08 677 008 177 (0) 242 336 356 / 8 (0) 242 336 251 / 9 (0) 242 336 262 / 7 (0) 242 334 377 / 9 (0) 242 334 381. Well-known for the “Green Belt Movement”, she has inspired many people the world over to take up the cause of afforestation. Starting in the 1850s, the small protectorate of Djibouti became French Somaliland in 1897. (Translation by H. Frisk, 1927, with updates and improvements and detailed notes). A later movement of Arabs into East and Central Africa occurred in the 19th century. There are hundreds of languages spoken throughout East Africa, ranging from those spoken by only a few thousand to those spoken by millions. Situated on the beautiful Mendocino Coast in Northern California, Brendan McGuigan has been writing professionally since 2003. We hope to bring … The most Covid-19 affected African countries in terms of the number of positive cases include South Africa, Morocco, Egypt and Ethiopia. Some went south along Africa’s west coast, while others headed east across the continent in one of the greatest migrations in human history. However, politics have been turbulent at times, including the attempted coup d’état in 1982 and the 2007 election riots. 1969. Eastern Africa consists largely of plateaus and has most of the highest elevations in the continent. Chami, Felix A. 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