MANAGEMENT AND APPROACHES TABLE 3-1 Functions of Governmental Units 51 Infrastructure Coastal Police Provider/ Land Use Landowner Power Funding Developer Planning Municipality x x x x x Special district o x x County o x* x* x o S rate x x x x Federal x x x o NOTE: x, major role in most states; o, minor role in most states; and - , not a role in most states. It put stress on interpersonal relations and the informal groups. Though the theories developed by scholars and practitioners on management are aimed at finding the best way of doing things; the management theory and science does not advocate ‘one’ best way to do things in every situation. Every department of the organisation is considered as a sub-system. 3 Approaches to Performance Management: Google, Betterment and IBM. PP&E is impacted by Capex, Depreciation, and Acquisitions/Disposition… vi. This approach is explained further here. It brought about such an extra ordinary mechanisation of industry that it necessitated the development of new management principles and practices. The human relations approach of management involves with the human behaviour and focused attention on the human beings in the organisation. This approach is termed as ‘behavioral science’, ‘leadership’ or ‘human relations’ ap­proach by different group of scholars. According to this approach, there is no single way or best way to address a given problem situation. Management should retain employees who are skilled and efficient in their work and provide them clarity about their tenure so that both; the work and the employee are stable. Frank Gilbreth (1868-1924) and Lillian Gilbreth (1878- 1972) as husband and wife team contributed extensively towards the concept of scientific management and were primarily responsible for analysis of time and motion study of workers, thus improving upon time and motion elements by eliminating unnecessary motions. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. It is the chain of superiors and subordinates from the highest level to the lowest level for the purpose of communication. 2. At times, they will come forward with new ideas and effective plans. An organization takes the input in the form of various resources such as men, machine, money and material. A System of Procedures for Dealing with Situations: These procedures must be time-tested and equally applicable under similar situations of work. Fayol retired in 1918 officially, however his name continued to exist in the Board of Directors of the company till his death in 1925. Authority and responsibility are closely related. The functioning of the organisation based on rational and objective standards, excludes the prejudices. The understanding of these factors has greatly helped management practitioners in real life situations. Everything you need to know about the approaches to management. The following are some of the areas where these techniques are extensively used: (vi) Preventive Control and replacement problems. It utilises mathematical symbols and relationships. An open system is one which is affected by its environment and a close system is one in which environment has no influence on the organization. The scientific management concept was first developed by F.W. It is towards the achievement of a common objective. Taylor insisted that the workers should be given proper training before they are put in the production line. The Socio Technical Systems Approach (E.L. Trist), Approaches to Management – Quantitative Approach, IT Approach, Systems Approach and Contingency or Situational Approach, Approaches to Management – Top 9 Approaches, :                               Â, 2. The noted contributors to this school include Abraham Maslow, Fredrick Herzberg, Victor Vroom, McGregor, Lawler, Sayles, and Tannenbaum. System works for a common objective. The advocates of this school perceive management as a process consisting of planning, organising, commanding and controlling. The Empirical or Case Approach Management by Custom School: This is based on the belief that, experience is the best guide to knowledge. Management is essentially a decision-making function. iii. By Stephen Alfano. Historical Background of Management
2. (4) Inter-Dependent – Each element is interdependent to each other and unless and until the previous one is not carried out, the second one can’t be started. Frederick Taylor known as the ‘father of scientific management’. Management should strive to achieve team spirit and teamwork amongst the employees. The manager has to carry out some of the functions simultaneously while keeping track of other functions. Copyright 10. it is a selection of a possible alternative course of action Decision making approach studies the persons / organizational groups making the deci­sion, and the decision making process. Under system approach, the overall objectives and performance of the organisation are taken into account and not only the objectives and performance of its different departments or subsystems. Some of the biggest names in technology and finance are not just making headlines for innovative advancement in their industries. Modern management theory can be traced from 1960s to today and it can be viewed more closely through three contemporary approaches to management, i.e., quantitative approach, simulation approach and contingency or situational approach. Harrington Emerson expounded Twelve principles as regards efficient use of organisational resources in his book. TOS 7. System is derived from Greek word called ‘systema’ which means interrelated and interdependent components arranged in a systematic manner to get the objectives. At first Mayo thought the reason for the worker’s behaviour must be physical fatigue. These techniques help the managers in improving their decisions by analysing the various alternatives in a scientific manner. F.W. The workers who produced above the standard level were paid a higher piece rate. There is strength in unity. Fayol also stressed on training in management, which could not be done without development of management theory. Managers can benefit from learning and implementing best practices or studied and tested approaches to running an organization. Taylor invested Motion study (now called method study) techniques for this purpose. Here, the organisation is viewed as a system. Where the problems are of repetitive nature, this approach proves very useful. “System is a set of things interdependent or connected together to form a complex unit. Virtually there is no sector which is not revolutionized by IT. Here, organisations are viewed as open and organic system and every department in the organisation is viewed as a subsystem. Henry Fayol is recognised as the first person to systematize the administrative approach activities into six groups, all of which are closely dependent on one another. This unbiased approach predictably leads to optimum efficiency. He also developed the Task Bonus system, which rewarded efficiency on the part of individual workers and also assured a standard remuneration to all, irrespective of individual output. Group Behaviour approach is closely related to interpersonal behaviour approach, but is focused on studying the behavioural patterns and dynamics of individuals as ‘mem­bers of small or large groups’ in an organization. iii. Plagiarism Prevention 4. F.W. The evolution of management theory can be studied under the following three parts: Scientific Management approach is also known as the productivity or efficiency approach. The basic characteristics of a bureaucratic organisation are as follows: (i) A division of labour based on functional specialization. Thus, no new strategy is evolved and little effort is made to blaze new trails. v. Impersonality of Interpersonal Relations: Rewards should be based on efficiency rather than nepotism or family connections. Remember the privilege of choice 2. The latest approach to management is known as ‘contingency’ or ‘situational’ approach. Similarly an organization is also viewed as a system made up of several parts in the form of departments while each department is independent and accomplishes specific predetermined goals; all are coordinated by the top management. Disclaimer 9. Problem 3 — “Change methods” themselves. No items found. Although any school of management can use Mathematical tools, some management scholars and practitioners see management exclusively as a system driven by mathematical models and processes. Besides increasing service efficiency ( authority ) of the western electric company similar situations of work and organisation... Manager ’ s premier business schools across the World has emanated from thinking... Advocated for systems approach facilitates the study and Research the interest of employer and employee receive. 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